3D Calculators
The Sun
Satellites and ground based facilities that host raster telescopes among other instrumentation. The list tends to be exhaustive over the former instruments, but is not in general.
Satellite Orbit
Ground based facility Location
Camera instrument package
Magnetograph/Doppler instrument package
Point instrument package
Camera of disk/corona
Resolution in pixels FOV Resolution in angle Time cadance
Hinode (Solar-B)
(URL: http://solarb.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/SolarB/)
Geocentric, sun-synchronous orbit
Solar Optical Telescope (SOT)
(URL: http://sot.lmsal.com/)
Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) -- images of photosphere and chromosphere in six bands:
  • CN: 388.35 nm, 0.7 nm width (magnetic network imaging).
  • Ca II H: 396.85 nm, 0.3 nm width (chromospheric heating).
  • CH: 430.50 nm, 0.8 nm width (magnetic elements).
  • 450.45 nm, 0.4 nm width (blue continuum temperature).
  • 555.05 nm, 0.4 nm width (green continuum temperature).
  • 668.40 nm, 0.4 nm width (red continuum temperature).
4096×2048 218"×109" 0.0541"×0.0541" 10 s
Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) -- tunable Lyot-type birefringent filter capable of producing magnetogram and dopplergram images of the solar surface. Spectral resolution 0.009 nm (9 pm) at 630 nm. 4096×2048 328"×164" 0.08"×0.08" 12.8 s
Spectropolarimeter (SP) -- produces the most sensitive vector magnetograph maps of the photosphere to date. 1024×1024 160"×151" 0.16"×0.15" 83 min
X-ray Telescope (XRT) A modified Wolter I telescope design that uses grazing incidence optics to image the solar corona's hottest components (0.5 to 10 Million K). 2048×2048 [ ? ] 34'×34'
(full disk)
1"×1" [ ? ]
Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) A normal incidence extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer that obtains spatially resolved spectra in two wavelength bands: 17.0-21.2 and 24.6-29.2 nm. 256×256 [ ? ] 560"x512" 2"×2" [ ? ]
Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Geosynchronous, 102° West, Inclination 28.05°
Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) EUV spectrometer [ ? ] 10 s
Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)
(URL: http://jsoc.stanford.edu/#)
Vector magnetograph:
Doppler velocity and line-of-sight magnetic flux
2048×2048 full disk 1"×1" 50 s
Vector magnetograph:
vector-magnetic images of the longitudinal solar magnetic field
2048×2048 full disk 1"×1" 90 s
Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) White light camera 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 170 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 160 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 33.5 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 30.4 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 21.1 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 19.3 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 17.1 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 13.1 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
UV camera – 9.4 nm 4096×4096 full disk 0.5"×0.5" 12 s
GOES (GOES-15, GOES-16, GOES-17) Geostationary, GOES-15: 135° West, GOES-16: 75.2° West, GOES-17: 137° West
Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI)
(URL: https://www.goes-r.gov/spacesegment/suvi.html)
Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) Monitoring solar irradiance in the upper atmosphere.
Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) Monitoring proton, electron and heavy ion fluxes at geosynchronous orbit.
Magnetometer (MAG)
(URL: https://www.goes-r.gov/spacesegment/mag.html)
Monitoring of the space environment magnetic field that controls charged particle dynamics in the outer region of the magnetosphere.
(URL: https://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/) STEREO-A
STEREO-B [not communicating, in uncontrolled spin]
(URL: https://stereo-ssc.nascom.nasa.gov/behind_status.shtml)
Heliocentric, Period STEREO A: 346 days, STEREO B: 388 days.
Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)
(URL: https://secchi.nrl.navy.mil/)
Extreme ultraviolet imager (EUVI)
(URL: http://secchi.lmsal.com/EUVI/)
[ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ]
White-light coronagraphs COR1
(URL: https://cor1.gsfc.nasa.gov/)
[ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ]
White-light coronagraphs COR2
(URL: https://secchi.nrl.navy.mil/index.php?p=cor2)
[ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ]
Heliospheric imager HI1
(URL: http://www.stereo.rl.ac.uk/)
[ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ]
Heliospheric imager HI2 [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ]
In-situ Measurements of Particles and CME Transients (IMPACT)
PLAsma and SupraThermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC)
(URL: http://stereo.sr.unh.edu/)
(URL: https://swaves.gsfc.nasa.gov/)
(URL: https://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/rhessi3/)
Geocentric, Perigee 490.3 km, Apogee 505.3 km, Inclination 38.0367°, Period 94.5667 min
Imaging spectrometer. 2D spectrometer camera in X-rays and gamma-rays between 3 keV and 17 MeV. [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ] [ ? ]
SORCE Geocentric, Perigee 617 km, Apogee 657 km, Inclination 39.99°, Period 97.19 min
The Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM).
(URL: http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/sorce/instruments/sim/)
SIM is a newly designed spectrometer that provides the first long-duration solar spectral irradiance measurements in the visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR). The wavelength coverage is primarily from 300 to 2400 nm, with an additional channel to cover the 200-300 nm ultraviolet spectral region to overlap with the SOLSTICE, another instrument on-board the SORCE satellite. Understanding the wavelength-dependent variability throughout SIM’s wavelength range is of primary importance for long-term climate change studies on Earth. SIM is a single optical element Fèry prism spectrometer; only one optical element is needed to focus and disperse the light onto a series of detectors in the spectrometer’s focal plane. In this focal plane, four photodiode detectors and an electrical substitution radiometer (ESR) are used to detect solar radiation. SIM contains two completely independent and identical (mirror-image) spectrometers to provide redundancy and self-calibration capability.
The SOlar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE).
(URL: http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/sorce/instruments/solstice/)
SOLSTICE is one of four solar irradiance measurement experiments that was launched as part of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) on January 25, 2003. SORCE SOLSTICE is a follow-on to the very successful SOLSTICE launched aboard the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991 [Rottman et al., 1993]. The new SOLSTICE makes daily solar ultraviolet (115-320 nm) irradiance measurements and compares them to the irradiance from an ensemble of 18 stable early-type stars. This approach provides an accurate monitor of instrument in-flight performance and provides a basis for solar-stellar irradiance comparison for future generations.
Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM).
(URL: http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/sorce/instruments/tim/)
The TIM measures the total solar irradiance (TSI), the spatially and spectrally integrated solar radiation incident at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere.
XUV Photometer System (XPS).
(URL: http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/sorce/instruments/xps/)
XUV studies the solar XUV radiation.
(URL: https://wind.nasa.gov/)
Heliocentric orbit at the Sun–Earth L1 point
Magnetic field instrument (MFI) Dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometers
(dynamic range: ±4 nT to ±65,536 nT)
1 point of measurements 23 ms
Solar & Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)
(URL: https://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/about/about.html)
Heliocentric Halo orbit at the Sun–Earth L1 point
[obsolete -> SDO\HMI]
(URL: http://soi.stanford.edu/science/obs_prog.html)
Dopplergram 1024×1024 full disk 2.6"×2.6" 1 min
Magnetogram 1024×1024 full disk 2.6"×2.6" 90 min
Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT)
[obsolete -> SDO\AIA]
(URL: https://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/eit/)
EUV camera 1024×1024 full disk 2.6"×2.6" 12 h
Large Angle and Spectrometric COronagraph (LASCO)
(URL: https://lasco-www.nrl.navy.mil/index.php?p=content/about_lasco)
Coronagraph camera 1024×1024 variable variable [ ? ]
Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)
(URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/iris/index.html)
Details: (URL: http://iris.lmsal.com/)
Data access: (URL: http://www2.mps.mpg.de/meetings/iris9/abs/tut%201.pdf)
Polar, sun-synchronous orbit
(URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/iris/spacecraft/index.html)
Ultraviolet telescope combined with an imaging spectrograph
(URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/iris/spacecraft/index.html)
Far-UV channel: 1332-1358 Å and 1390-1406 Å with 40 m Å resolution and an effective area of 2.8 cm2. 512×512 [ ? ] 120"×120" 0.33" 1 s
Near-UV channel: 2785-2835 Å with 80 mÅ resolution and an effective area 0.3 cm2. 512×512 [ ? ] 120"×120" 0.33" 1 s
Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCO).
(URL: http://www.leibniz-kis.de/en/observatories/gregor/)
Heliocentric Lissajous orbit at the Sun–Earth L1 point
Plasma-Magnetometer (PlasMag) The Plasma-Magnetometer measures solar wind for space weather predictions. It has three instruments:
  • Magnetometer measures magnetic field.
  • Faraday cup measures positively charged particles.
  • Electrostatic analyzer measures electrons.
[Future mission] Solar Probe+
[Future mission] Solar Sentinels
[Future mission] Solar Orbiter
[Future mission] Solar-C
Japanese project to supersede Hinode.
A Solar Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Telescope (SUVIT).
Used for spectropolarimetry of the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun. With a diameter of 1.5 m, it will be the largest solar telescope to fly in space by a factor of 9 in collecting area.
An X-ray or extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope (XIT).
It will observe the corona at unprecedented spatial resolution.
The LEMUR Extreme UltraViolet Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST). This instrument will exhibit a resolution and effective area an order of magnitude higher than currently available for solar studies.
GREGOR -- 1.5 m (largest in Europe) solar telescope.
(URL: http://www.leibniz-kis.de/en/observatories/gregor/)
Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain.
Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI): Imaging spectroscopy
(URL: http://soi.stanford.edu/science/obs_prog.html)
Spectrometric camera 1376×1024 50″×38″ 0.037"×0.037" [ ? ]
Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT)
(URL: http://www.leibniz-kis.de/en/observatories/vtt/)
Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain.
Mauna Lao Solar Observatory (MLSO)
(URL: https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/mlso/mlso-home-page)
NOAA Mauna Loa research site, Hawaii (3440 meters).
Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS)
(URL: https://www.noao.edu/outreach/kptour/vacuum.html)
Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA
NSO/NISP SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) Vector spectromagnetograph 2048×2048 full disk 1"×1" 40 min
NSO/NISP SOLIS Full Disk Patrol IR camera – 1083 nm 2048×2048 full disk 1"×1" [ ? ]
UV and visible light camera – 380 nm ÷ 670 nm 2048×2048 full disk 1"×1" [ ? ]
(URL: https://gong.nso.edu/)
A Michelson interferometer 2.5"×2.5" 60 s
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